- Tianna Thompson
- Viet Vu
- André Côté
- Nina Rafeek Dow
“Micro-Credentials for Lifelong Learning and Employability: Uses and Possibilities,” OECD Education Policy Perspectives, (Paris: OECD Publishing, 2023), https://www.oecd.org/publications/microcredentials-for-lifelong-learning-and-employability-9c4b7b68-en.htm.
Alissa Bigelow et al., ECampusOntario’s Micro-Credential Toolkit (Ontario Online Learning Consortium eCampusOntario, 2022), https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/microcredentialtoolkit.
Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Training, “Micro-Credential Framework for B.C.’s Public Post-Secondary Education System,” (Government of British Columbia, September 2021), https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/post-secondary-education/microcredentials/mc_framework.pdf.
Jacob Mincer, “Education, Experience, and the Distribution of Earnings and Employment: An Overview,” in Education, Income, and Human Behavior (NBER, 1975), 71–94, https://www.nber.org/books-and-chapters/education-income-and-human-behavior/education-experience-and-distribution-earnings-and-employmentoverview.
Dale W. Jorgenson and Barbara M. Fraumeni, “Education and Productivity Growth in a Market Economy,” Atlantic Economic Journal 21, no. 2 (June 1, 1993): 1–25, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02302312.
A foundational 1973 paper by Arrow provides a theoretical discussion on different forms of signalling in economic theory, including acquiring educational credentials. Kenneth J. Arrow, “Information and Economic Behavior” (Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center, September 1, 1973), https://doi.org/10.21236/AD0768446.
Nguyen Thi Ngoc Ha, Michael Spittle, Anthony Watt, and Nina Van Dyke, “A Systematic Literature Review of Micro-Credentials in Higher Education: A Non-Zero-Sum Game.” Higher Education Research & Development 42 (6): 1527–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2022.2146061.
“Micro-credential Approval, Accreditation and Listing,” New Zealand Qualifying Authority, https://www2.nzqa.govt.nz/tertiary/approvalaccreditation-and-registration/micro-credentials.
“Focus on Microcredentials,” Future Skills Centre (blog), https://fscccf.ca/engage/focus-on-microcredentials.
Emma Gooch et al., “The Future Is Micro: Digital Learning and Micro-Credentials for Education, Retraining and Lifelong Learning,” (Toronto: Future Skills Centre, March 10, 2022), https://fsc-ccf.ca/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/TheFutureisMicro-Report-ENG.pdf.
“CICan Launches New Report and Environmental Scan on Microcredentials,” Colleges and Institutes Canada, April 12, 2021, https://www.collegesinstitutes.ca/news-release/cican-launches-new-reportand-environmental-scan-on-microcredentials.
Alex Usher et al., “Approaches to Stackability of Micro-Credentials: Options for Ontario,” Higher Education Strategy Associates, prepared for Ontario Council on Articulation and Transfer, (Toronto: ONCAT, HESA, March 20, 2023), https://www.oncat.ca/sites/default/files/mediafiles/r2246_micro-credentials_final_report_21-3-23.pdf.
Jackie Pichette, S. Brumwell, J. Rizk, S. Han, “Making Sense of Microcredentials” (Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario, May 5, 2021), https://heqco.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Formatted_Microcredentials_FINAL1.pdf.
David Harvey, Russ Wilde, and Partha Roy, “Employer and Employee Perceptions of Micro-Credentials” (Toronto: Future Skills Centre, April 2023), https://fsc-ccf.ca/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/NAIT_FSC_Report_April2023-1.pdf.
Marc Frenette and Tomasz Handler, “Does Taking Short Postsecondary Programs or Independent Credits Benefit Recently Displaced Workers?” (Statistics Canada Economic and Social Reports, November 23, 2022), https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/36-28-0001/2022011/article/00003-eng.htm.
Di Xu Ben Castleman, Kelli Bird, Sabrina Solanki, and Michael Cooper, “Noncredit Workforce Training Programs Are Very Popular. We Know next to Nothing about Them,” Brookings (blog), May 23, 2023, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2023/05/23/noncredit-workforce-training-programs-are-very-popular-we-knownext-to-nothing-about-them.
Thomas Bailey and Clive Belfield, “Stackable Credentials: Do They Have Labor Market Value?” (Teachers College Columbia University, November 20, 2017), https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publications/stackablecredentials-do-they-have-labor-market-value.html.
Jessa Lewis Valentine and Janelle Clay, “Non-Degree Credentials Provide Value for Adults in the Labor Market,” (Lumina Foundation, June 18, 2019), https://www.luminafoundation.org/resource/non-degreecredentials-provide-value-for-adults-in-the-labor-market.
Otto Kässi and Vili Lehdonvirta, “Do Microcredentials Help New Workers Enter the Market? Evidence from an Online Labor Platform,” Journal of Human Resources, March 9, 2022 (date published online before print), https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.0519-10226R3.
We define competencies in accordance with ESDC’s Skills and Competencies Taxonomy, specifically “The combined utilization of personal attributes, abilities, skills, and knowledge to effectively perform a job, role, function, task, or duty.”
Mike Brown, “Do People Tell the Truth on LinkedIn?” LendEDU (blog), June 5, 2017, https://lendedu.com/blog/drawbacks-deceptionslinkedin.
Andrew Fennell, “Study: Fake Job References and Resume Lies,” StandOut CV (blog), November 23, 2022, https://standout-cv.com/usa/study-fake-job-references-resume-lies.
Matthew Baird et al., “LinkedIn STEM Classification Methodology,” (LinkedIn, February 2023), https://economicgraph.linkedin.com/content/dam/me/economicgraph/en-us/PDF/linkedin-stemclassification-methodology-egtn01.pdf.